What are the optimal experimental parameters for maximizing neurofeedback learning success?


Currently, this question cannot be answered. Even fundamental variables of the training protocol, such as the number of training sessions, duration of training runs, etc. have not been systematically compared.

Given the many variables and their possible interactions, it will not be feasible to optimize them experimentally. We therefore propose to use a large pool of already existing neurofeedback data to identify the optimal configuration of these variables by means of a machine learning mega-analysis. 


If you want to contribute data to help with these projects, please contact us.

Anyone who contributes with data / analysis tools will become co-author on the papers arising from these analyses.



New results will continuously be made publicly available on this page.

Here are some of the latest results:

rtFIN_2019: Factors influencing neurofeedback learning – a machine learning mega-analysis

rtFIN_2019: Predicting neurofeedback training performance



And here is a (growing) list of the co-authors of this project:


Amelie Haugg1, David Steyrl2, Fabian Renz2, Sebastian J. Götzendorfer2, Cindy Lor2, Andrew A. Nicholson2, Ronald Sladky2, Stavros Skouras3, Amalia McDonald4, Cameron Craddock5, Lydia Hellrung6, Matthias Kirschner7, Marcus Herdener1, Yury Koush8, Jackob Keynan9, Talma Hendler9, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh10, Catharina Zich11, Jeff MacInnes12, Alison Adcock13, Kathryn Dickerson14, Nan-Kuei Chen15, Kymberly Young16, Jerzy Bodurka17, Michael Marxen18, Yao Shuxia19, Benjamin Becker19, Tibor Auer20, Renate Schweizer21, Gustavo Pamplona22, Ruth A. Lanius23, Kirsten Emmert24, Sven Haller25, Dimitri Van De Ville24, Maria-Laura Blefari, Dong-Youl Kim26, Jong-Hwan Lee26, Theo Marins27, Megumi Fukuda28, Bettina Sorger29, Tabea Kamp29, Marina Papoutsi30, Sook-Lei Liew31, Ralf Veit32, Maartje Spetter33, Nikolaus Weiskopf34, Frank Scharnowski1,2


1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Zurich 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna 3Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen 4Department of Psychology, University of Virginia 5Child Mind Institute, New York 6Department of Economics, University of Zurich 7McGill University, Montreal 8Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University 9Functional Brain Center, Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University 10School of Psychology, University of Surrey 11Nuffiled Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford 12Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington 13Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University 14Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University 15Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona 16Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh 17Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa 18Neuroimaging Centre, Technische Universität Dresden 19Clinical Hospital of Chengdu the Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China 20Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London 21Biomedizinische NMR, Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Chemistry 22University of Lausanne 23Department of Psychiatry, University of Western Ontario 24Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, University of Geneva 25Affidea CDRC - Centre Diagnostique Radiologique de Carouge 26Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University 27D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro 28School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University 29Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University 30UCL Huntington’s Disease Centre, Institute of Neurology, University College London 31University of Southern California, Los Angeles 32Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology,  University of Tübingen 33School of Psychology, University of Birmingham 34Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences